1st Night of Rabī’ al-Awwal
At the first night of Rabī’ al-Awwal, 12 years after the outset of his Divine Mission, the Holy Prophet migrated from Makkah to al-Madinah. On this night, he hid in Cave Thawr. Imam Ali (عليه السلام) sacrificed himself for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) on this night, when he spent the night in the place of the Holy Prophet so as to give the latter enough time to leave Makkah safely and to arrive at his destination.
Imam Ali (عليه السلام) challenged the polytheists who had plotted to assassinate the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) by attacking him in his bed. Thus, everybody confessed to Imam Ali’s bravery and courage, as well as his love for and fraternity with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم). Immortalizing this event, Almighty Allah revealed the following holy verse 2:207: “And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Affectionate to the servants.”
1st Day of Rabī’ al-Awwal
Scholars maintain that it is recommended to observe fasting on this day to express gratitude to Almighty Allah for His Favor of having saved the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali – peace be upon them and their Household. It is also appropriate to visit their holy shrines on this day. In Iqbal al-A’mal, Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned a supplication to be said on this day.
According to Shaykh al-Tusi and al-Kaf’ami, Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari (عليه السلام) departed life on this day. Yet, the most familiar report is that the Imam (عليه السلام) departed life on the 8th of Rabī’ al-Awwal. It is possible that his ailment began on this day.