Shia Calendar Bismillah Duas Supplications Ziyarah Ziyarat Munajat Sahifa Sajjadiya Alawiya

10 Muharram

THE ‘ASHURA’ NIGHT

Prayers
Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A’mal, has mentioned a number of supplication anda number of prayers that are recommended to be offered on the tenth night of Muharram. He has also cited numerous rewards of reciting and offering these supplications and prayers. For instance, it is recommended to offer a one hundred unit prayer with Surah al-Fātiḥah once and Surah al-Tawḥīd three times. After accomplishment, the invocations are repeated seventy times:

سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَ لا اِلَهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَ اللّٰهُ اَكْبَرُ وَ لا حَوْلَ وَ لا قُوَّةَ اِلا بِاللّٰهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ
Ask Forgiveness
According to another narration, one should implore for Almighty Allah’s forgiveness after recitation of previous invocations
4 rakaat prayer
It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer at the last of this night, reciting Surah al-Fātiḥah once and repeating Ayah al-Kursi and Surahs al-Tawḥīd, al-Falaq, al-Nas ten times each. After accomplishment, Surah al-Tawḥīd is repeated one hundred times.
4 rakaat prayer
It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer with Surah al-Fātiḥah once and Surah al-Tawḥīd fifty times. Matching the prayer of Imam Ali Ameer al-Momineen (عليه السلام), which brings about a tremendous reward, Sayyid Ibn Tawus says after citing this prayer, “When you finish the fourth units, you may mention Almighty Allah, invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, and curse their enemies as many times as possible.
Spending the whole night in worship
As regarding the reward of spending this whole night with acts of worship, it has been narrated that one who does so shall be considered having worshipped Almighty Allah with the worship of all the angels. Furthermore, to practice acts of worship at this night is equal to seventy-year worship. Moreover, as for one who succeeds to visit the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) on this night and spends the whole night there till morning, Almighty Allah shall resurrect him, on the Judgment Day, spotted with the blood of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) in the group of those who were martyred with him

THE DAY OF ASHURA

Condolences
On this day, Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) was martyred. It is indeed the day of the calamitous misfortune and the day of grief for the Holy Imams (عليه السلام) and their adherents. Thus, the Shi’ah are required to stop earning any worldly benefit, stop storing anything in their houses, and devote themselves to weeping and mourning the misfortunes of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام). They are thus required to hold consolation ceremonies in the same way as they do for their dead sons and relatives. They are also required to visit the holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) with the famous form of Ziyarah (Ziyarat ‘Ashura). They are also required to invoke curse upon the enemies and slayers of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) and to express sympathy to each other, saying,

اَعْظَمَ اللّٰهُ اُجُورَنَا بِمُصَابِنَا بِالْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَ جَعَلَنَا وَ اِيَّاكُمْ مِنَ الطَّالِبِينَ بِثَارِهِ مَعَ وَلِيِّهِ الْاِمَامِ الْمَهْدِيِّ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِمُ [عَلَيْهِ‏] السَّلامُ.

The adherents (Shi’ah) of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) should confer the martyrdom of their Imam and should weep for him. It is narrated that when Prophet Moses (عليه السلام) was ordered to meet the Scholar, namely al-Khidr (عليه السلام), the first matter they discussed was the misfortune that the Household of Prophet Muhammad(عليه السلام) would face. They therefore wept heavily for these misfortunes.

Ibn ‘Abbas is reported to have said, “When I accompanied Imam Ali(عليه السلام) in Dhi-Qar, he took out a paper comprising the dictations of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم) and handwritten by Imam Ali(عليه السلام) himself. He read some segments of that paper and I heard. It contained the story of Imam al-Husayn’s martyrdom with full details of the way he would be killed, the person who would kill him, those who would support him, and those who would be martyred with him. Imam Ali(عليه السلام) then wept heavily and caused me to weep.”

There is not enough space in this book to mention a part of the story of Imam al-Husayn’s martyrdom; therefore, the complete event can be read in the books specified for this respect. These books are called al-Maqtal.

Serve Water
If one offers water to people on this day at the holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام), his reward will be similar to the reward of one who offered water to the companions of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) at Karbala’. A great reward is also recorded for one who repeats Surah al-Tawḥīd one thousand times on this day. It is narrated that Almighty Allah shall have a merciful look at one who repeats this Surah one thousand times on this day.
Supplication
Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned a supplication similar to Dua al-Ashraat to be said on this day. More specifically, this supplication seems to be the same as Dua al-Ashraat but according to another narration.
4 rakaat prayer
Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned that ‘Abdullah ibn Sinan reported from Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام) a four unit prayer and a supplication to be offered and said at the first hours of this day; but on account of briefness, they will not be cited in this book. They, however, can be seen in the book of Zad al-Ma’ad.
Refrain from eating/drinking
The adherents of Imam al-Husayn (عليه السلام) are required not to eat or drink anything on this day, but not in the intention of ritual fasting, and to break this abstention from food and drink with a meal that is usually offered to the unfortunate people, such as yoghurt, milk, or the like meals; and that should be at the last hour of this day after the afternoon time. In other words, they should avoid having rich or delicious meals on this day, for it is a day of misfortune. They are also required to put on clean dresses and to unfasten the buttons and raise their sleeves just like the unfortunate people.
Amaal
At the last hours of the Day of ‘Ashura’, it is necessary to bring to mind the situation of Imam al-Husayn’s harem at those hours when they were taken as captives in Karbala’ while they were unimaginably depressed and unfortunate that they could do nothing but weep. No author can ever describe the actual manner of Imam al-Husayn’s harem, daughters, and children at these hours since the misfortunes that they had to encounter had never stricken any human being on this earth.

فاجِعَةٌ اِنْ اَرَدْتُ اَکْتُبُهامُجْمَلَةً ذِکْرَةً لِمُدِّکِرٍ
جَرَتْ دُمُوعى فَحالَ حائِلُهاما بَیْنَ لَحْظِ الْجُفُونِ وَالزُّبُرِ
وَقالَ قَلْبى بُقْیا عَلَىَّ فَلاوَاللّهِ ما قَدْ طُبِعْتُ مِنْ حَجَرٍ
بَکَتْلَهَاالاْرْضُوَالسَّماَّءُوَمابَیْنَهُما فى مَدامِعٍ حُمُرٍ
Ziyarah of Condolence
After that, it is recommended to stand up and address and offer condolences to the Holy Prophet, Imam Ali, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’, Imam al-Hasan, and the Holy Imams from the offspring of Imam al-Husayn - the chief of martyrs - on these astounding misfortunes with passionate heart and teary eyes. Then, it is recommended to address them with the following form of Ziyarah:

السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ آدَمَ صَفْوَةِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ نُوحٍ نَبِيِّ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ اِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُوسَى كَلِيمِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عِيسَى رُوحِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُحَمَّدٍ حَبِيبِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عَلِيٍّ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيِّ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ الْحَسَنِ الشَّهِيدِ سِبْطِ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ الْبَشِيرِ النَّذِيرِ وَ ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ فَاطِمَةَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا خِيَرَةَ اللّٰهِ وَ ابْنَ خِيَرَتِهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ثَارَ اللّٰهِ وَ ابْنَ ثَارِهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا الْوِتْرُ الْمَوْتُورُ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا الْاِمَامُ الْهَادِي الزَّكِيُّ وَ عَلَى اَرْوَاحٍ حَلَّتْ بِفِنَائِكَ وَ اَقَامَتْ فِي جِوَارِكَ وَ وَفَدَتْ مَعَ زُوَّارِكَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ مِنِّي مَا بَقِيتُ وَ بَقِيَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ فَلَقَدْ عَظُمَتْ بِكَ الرَّزِيَّةُ وَ جَلَّ الْمُصَابُ فِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَ فِي اَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ اَجْمَعِينَ وَ فِي سُكَّانِ الْاَرَضِينَ فَاِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَ اِنَّا اِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ وَ صَلَوَاتُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ وَ تَحِيَّاتُهُ عَلَيْكَ وَ عَلَى آبَائِكَ الطَّاهِرِينَ الطَّيِّبِينَ الْمُنْتَجَبِينَ وَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّهِمُ الْهُدَاةِ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلايَ وَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ عَلَى رُوحِكَ وَ عَلَى اَرْوَاحِهِمْ وَ عَلَى تُرْبَتِكَ وَ عَلَى تُرْبَتِهِمْ اَللّٰهُمَّ لَقِّهِمْ رَحْمَةً وَ رِضْوَانا وَ رَوْحا وَ رَيْحَانا السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلايَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ يَا ابْنَ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ، وَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ وَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا شَهِيدُ يَا ابْنَ الشَّهِيدِ يَا اَخَ الشَّهِيدِ يَا اَبَا الشُّهَدَاءِ اَللّٰهُمَّ بَلِّغْهُ عَنِّي فِي هَذِهِ السَّاعَةِ وَ فِي هٰذَا الْيَوْمِ وَ فِي هٰذَا الْوَقْتِ وَ فِي كُلِّ وَقْتٍ تَحِيَّةً كَثِيرَةً وَ سَلاما سَلامُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْكَ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ عَلَى الْمُسْتَشْهَدِينَ مَعَكَ سَلاما مُتَّصِلا مَا اتَّصَلَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحَسَنِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ جَعْفَرٍ وَ عَقِيلٍ السَّلامُ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْتَشْهَدٍ مَعَهُمْ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ. اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ بَلِّغْهُمْ عَنِّي تَحِيَّةً كَثِيرَةً وَ سَلاما السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللّٰهِ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكِ يَا فَاطِمَةُ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكِ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكِ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَسَنَ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي اَخِيكَ الْحُسَيْنِ يَا مَوْلايَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ اَنَا ضَيْفُ اللّٰهِ وَ ضَيْفُكَ وَ جَارُ اللّٰهِ وَ جَارُكَ وَ لِكُلِّ ضَيْفٍ وَ جَارٍ قِرًى وَ قِرَايَ فِي هٰذَا الْوَقْتِ اَنْ تَسْاَلَ اللّٰهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى اَنْ يَرْزُقَنِي فَكَاكَ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ اِنَّهُ سَمِيعُ الدُّعَاءِ قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ.